The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the significance of keratinized mucosa (KM) around dental implants both clinically and biochemically for 12 months.
Material and methods
Fifteen edentulous patients treated with implant-retained overdentures in edentulous mandible (four implants per patient). Based on the presence of keratinized mucosa on the buccal surfaces, implants were divided into two groups: Implants having minimal 2 mm of KM on their buccal surfaces and implants having no KM on their buccal surfaces. Thirty-six implants were included in the evaluations; 19 implants in 15 patients had minimal 2 mm of KM on their buccal surfaces and 17 implants in 15 patients had no KM on their buccal surfaces. Clinical measurements of Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing depths, and Bleeding on Probing were performed and peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) were collected immediately before loading (baseline) and at 6th, 12th months after loading. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) have been assessed in the crevicular fluid. Results were analyzed by repeated-measures of variance (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
After 12 months of evaluation the results of ANOVA showed that implants with KM had lower levels of TNF-α total amounts than implants without KM (P < 0.05). Additionally, TNF-α total amounts were significantly higher at 12th month compared to baseline for implants without KM (P < 0.05). Plaque index and Gingival index values were also found significantly higher for implants without KM (P < 0.05). For IL-1 β and PICF volume levels the differences between the implant groups were non significant, whereas the differences between the periods were significant. (P < 0.05) Additionally, both of the groups had higher levels of PII and BoP scores when compared to baseline (P < 0.05).
The results of this study showed that an adequate band of keratinized mucosa was related with less plaque accumulation and mucosal inflammation as well as pro-inflammatuar mediators, suggesting that it may be critical especially for plaque control and plaque associated mucosal lesions around dental implants.