Purpose: The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the implant survival rate after osteotome-mediated maxillary sinus augmentation with or without using grafting materials.
Materials and Methods: MEDLINE database was searched using a combination of specific search terms. Furthermore, a hand searching of the relevant journals and of the bibliographies of reviews was performed. Prospective and retrospective clinical studies with at least 20 patients treated by osteotome-mediated sinus floor elevation were included.
Results: Nineteen studies were selected for data analysis. A total of 1,822 patients, accounting for 3,131 implants were considered. Mean weighted cumulative implant survival at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years was estimated as 98.12%, 97.40%, 96.75%, and 95.81%, respectively. No significant difference was found in relation to the use of grafting material nor in relation to implant length. Overall implant survival was 92.7% for 331 implants placed in <5 mm ridge height and 96.9% for 2,525 implants inserted in ≥5 mm ridge height. The difference was significant (p = .0003).
Conclusions: The transalveolar sinus augmentation technique could be a viable treatment in case of localized atrophy in the posterior maxilla even in case of minimal residual bone height. The prognosis can be more favorable when the residual ridge is at least 5 mm high.